Indian Foreign Service
The Indian Foreign Service is the administrative Diplomatic civil Service under
Group A of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India.
Indian Foreign Service is a Central Civil Service as Foreign Policy is the Subject
matter and prerogative of Union Government.
The Origin of the Indian Foreign Service can be traced back to the British rule when the Foreign Department was created to conduct business with the "Foreign European Powers”. In fact it was on September 13, 1783, when the Board of Directors of the East India Company passed a resolution at Fort William, Calcutta [now Kolkata], to create a Department, which could help "relieve the pressure” on the Warren Hastings administration in conducting its "secret and Political business”. Subsequently known as the "Indian Foreign Department”, it went ahead with the expansion of Diplomatic representation, wherever necessary, to protect British interests.
In 1843, Governor-General Ellenborough carried out administrative reforms under
which the Secretariat of the Government was organized under four Departments –
Foreign, Home, Finance and Military. Each was headed by a Secretary level Officer. The Foreign Department Secretary was entrusted with the "conduct of all correspondence belonging to the external and internal Diplomatic relations of the Government”.
From the very beginning, a distinction was maintained between the "Foreign” and
"Political” functions of the Foreign Department; relations with all "Asiatic powers”
[including native princely states of India during the British Raj] were treated as "Political” and with all European powers as "Foreign”.
Although the Government of India Act, 1935 sought to delineate more clearly functions of the "Foreign” and "Political” wings of the Foreign Department, it was soon realized that it was administratively imperative to completely bifurcate the Foreign Department.
Consequently, the External Affairs Department was set up separately under the direct charge of the Governor-General.
The idea of establishing a separate Diplomatic Service to handle the external activities of the Government of India originated from a note dated September 30, 1944, recorded by Lt-Gen T. J. Hutton, Secretary, Planning and Development Department of the Government. When this note was referred to the Department of External Affairs for comments, Mr Olaf Caroe, the Foreign Secretary, recorded his comments in an exhaustive note detailing the scope, composition and functions of the proposed Service. Mr Caroe pointed out that as India emerged to a position of autonomy and national consciousness, it was imperative to build up a system of representation abroad that would be in complete harmony with the objectives of the future Government.
In September 1946, on the eve of India’s independence, the Government of India
decided to create a Service called the Indian Foreign Service for India’s Diplomatic, consular and commercial representation overseas. In 1947, there was a near seamless transformation of the Foreign and Political Department of the British India Government into what then became the new
Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations and in 1948 the first batch recruited under the combined Civil Service examination system of the Union
Public Service Commission joined the Service. This system of entry has remained the staple mode of intake into the IFS to this day.
Difference between IAS and IFS:
-Both IFS and IAS are part of civil Services on India
-IAS and IFS are two very popular Career options for students in Government sector.
-Both Services are attractive and are full of glamour and prestige.
-IAS offers a Career in administration, IFS promises a fruitful; Career in Diplomacy.
-IAS becomes a part of the bureaucracy in charge of law and order and general
administration, IFS Officers are absorbed in Indian missions abroad and rise to
work as a Diplomat in these missions finally becoming an ambassador to a Foreign country or a high commissioner abroad in an Indian mission.
-In short “An IAS Officer is Posted inside the country while an IFS Officer remains
Posted outside the country”
On selection to the Indian Foreign Service through the combined Civil Services
examination, the new entrants undergo a multi-faceted and comprehensive
training programme intended to give them a thorough grounding in Diplomatic
knowledge, Diplomatic qualities and Diplomatic skills. The probationers
commence their training, together with their colleagues from the other All India
Services, at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussourie. Thereafter the probationers join the Foreign Service Institute in New Delhi and undergo focused training in the various disciplines that a Career Diplomat needs to familiarise himself with. The Foreign Service Institute course
involves lectures, attachments with various wings of the Government as well as
familiarisation tours both within the country and abroad. The aim of this course is to inculcate in the Diplomatic recruit a strong sense of history, knowledge of Diplomacy and international relations and a grasp of general economic and Political principles.
At the conclusion of the training programme the Officer is assigned his / her compulsory Foreign language [CFL]. After a brief period of desk attachment in the Ministry of External Affairs the Officer is Posted to an Indian Mission abroad in a country where his CFL is the native language and enrolled in a language course.
The Officer is expected to develop proficiency in his CFL and pass the requisite
examination before he is confirmed in Service.
A Foreign Service Officer begins his Career abroad as a Third Secretary and is promoted to Second Secretary as soon as he is confirmed in Service.
Subsequent promotions are to the levels of First Secretary, Counsellor, Minister
and Ambassador / High Commissioner / Permanent Representative. Officers can
also be Posted to Indian Consulates abroad where the hierarchy [going upwards]
is Vice-Consul, Consul and Consul General.
The hierarchy at the Ministry of External Affairs includes 6 stages:
As a Career Diplomat, the Foreign Service Officer is required to project India’s interests, both at home and abroad on a wide variety of issues. These include bilateral Political and economic cooperation, trade and investment promotion, cultural interaction, press and media liaison as well as a whole host of multilateral issues.
The functions of an Indian Diplomat may be summarized as:
Representing India in its Embassies, High Commissions, Consulates, and Permanent Missions to multilateral organisations like UN;
Protecting India’s national interests in the country of his/her Posting; Promoting friendly relations with the receiving state as also its people, including NRI / PIOs; Reporting accurately on developments in the country of Posting which are likely to influence the formulation of India’s Policies;
Negotiating agreements on various issues with the authorities of the receiving state; and
Extending consular facilities to Foreigners and Indian nationals abroad. At home, Ministry of External Affairs is responsible for all aspects of external relations. Territorial divisions deal with bilateral Political and economic work while functional divisions look after Policy planning, multilateral organizations, regional
groupings, legal matters, disarmament, protocol, consular, Indian Diaspora, press
and publicity, administration and other aspects.
In recent years, the intake into the Indian Foreign Service has averaged between
10 to 20 Persons annually. The present cadre strength of the Service stands at Aproximately 700 Officers manning around 160 Indian Missions and Posts Abroad and the various Posts in the Ministry at Home.
Works of an IAS Officer will be visible for everyone, he / she can bring more
visible impact on the society where as IFS is not so visible and brings less visible impact than IAS.[ A fisherman from Tamil Nadu will realize the works of IFS Officers when he hears that some of his mates who were arrested by Sri-Lankan navy will be released soon.The same fisherman will have to visit his district HQ
for several reasons ]
There are several situation when an IAS Officer will have dinner at 1 am and shall
leave for work at 5 am on the same day. He / She will be more vulnerable to dance with the whims and fancies of local Politicians.Diplomats are less prone to such situations unless there is a crisis [ war,natural disaster etc. ]
Managing family life is gonna be tedious for Diplomats while IAS Officers can handle it relatively easily. Being an Ambassador or High Commissioner of IndiA more delightful, Glamorous and Satisfactory than being a Chief Secretary / DGP of a STATE.
Challenges faced by both IFS and IAS Officers are entirely different in nature.
Political Interference - There is no Political interference in the case of IFS Officers but IAS Officers have to face tremendous pressure from Politicians.
Salary - Both IAS and IFS Officers earn similar salary within India.But when Posted abroad ,IFS Officers earn higher when we take into account the Foreign Allowance.
Comfort of Life - Here IFS has a clear edge over IAS .IFS Officers ,throughout their Career will be working in capitals or well developed cities of other nations. IAS Officers have to work within their allotted state cadre for rest of their Career [Except in the case of Central Deputation].
Family Life - Spouses of IFS Officers will have a tough time pursuing their Career .Their children get the prestigious opportunity to study in various International Schools .But they will have to shift Schools once the Officer gets transferred to another country . When it comes to IAS , frequent transfers will play havoc with family life. Most of the time children / spouse [if working] will have a hard time accompanying the Officer .
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